The Mughal Empire - General Knowledge Question and Answer

The Mughal Empire - Question and Answer

Mughal Empire founded by  


Akbar the Great
Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad Babur
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia by Uzbek Khan, the 14-year old Prince Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India. The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels. Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India.


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Who was the last Emperor of Mughal Empire?  


Shah Alam II
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Bahadur Shah II
Farrukhsiyar

Answer:

Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II (24 October 1775-7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837. He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the city of Delhi (Shahjahanbad). Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma, after convicting him on conspiracy charges.


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The First Battle of Panipat was fought between  


Akbar and Himu
Akbar and Maharana Pratap
Babur and Ibrahim Lodi
Babur and Rana Sanga

Answer:

The First Battle of Panipat, on 21 April 1526, was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Empire. It took place in north India and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery in India.

After losing Samarkand for the third time, Babur gave attention to conquer India as he reached the banks of the Chenab in 1519. Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfil his ancestor Timur's legacy, since it used to be part of his empire. At the time parts of north India were under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodhi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim. He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne of the country, however the ambassador was detained at Lahore and released months later.


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Baburnama written by  


Gulbadan Begum
Babur
Abul Fazl
None

Answer:

Baburnama ( literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad Babur (1483-1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.

It is an autobiographical work, written in the Chagatai language, known to Babur as "Turki" (meaning Turkic), the spoken language of the Andijan-Timurids. According to historian Stephen Frederic Dale, Babur's prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary, and also contains many phrases and smaller poems in Persian. During Emperor Akbar's reign, the work was completely translated to Persian by a Mughal courtier, Abdul Rahim, in AH 998 (1589-90).

The Baburnama begins with these plain words: In the month of Ramadan of the year 899 and in the twelfth year of my age, I became ruler in the country of Farghana.


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The Battle of Khanwa was fought between  



Babur and Rana Sanga
Babur and Medini Rai
Babur and Sultan Mahmud Lodi
Babur and Sultan Nusrat Shah

Answer:

The Battle of Khanwa was fought near the village of Khanwa, in Bharatpur District of Rajasthan, on March 17, 1527. It was the second major battle fought in modern-day India, between the invading forces of the first Mughal Emperor Babur and the Rajput forces led by Rana Sanga of Mewar, after the Battle of Panipat. The victory in the battle consolidated the new Mughal dynasty in India.


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The tomb of the first Mughal Emperor Babur placed in  



Agra
Delhi
Kabul
Lahore

Answer:

Babur died at the age of 47 on 5 January [O.S. 26 December 1530] 1531 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun

After death, his body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan, where it lies in Bagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens).


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Who was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire?  


Akbar
Humayun
Jahangir
Shah Jahan

Answer:

Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad (6 March 1508-27 January 1556) better known by his regnal name, Humayun, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1531-1540 and again from 1555-1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.

In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. At the age of 23, Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Lahore, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun.

Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, but regained them 15 years later with Safavid aid. Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signaled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language, and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.


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Who was the winner of the Battle of Ghaghra?  


Babur
Akbar
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

The Battle of Ghaghra, fought in 1529, was a major battle for the conquest of India by the Mughal Empire. It followed the first Battle of Panipat in 1526 and the Battle of Khanwa in 1527. The forces of now Emperor Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur of the emerging Mughal Empire were joined by Indian allies in battle against the Eastern Afghan Confederates under Sultan Mahmud Lodi and Sultanate of Bengal under Sultan Nusrat Shah.

Babur was the winner of the Battle of Ghaghra.


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At the age of ______ Humayun became an Emperor?  


21
14
23
25

Answer:

Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (6 March 1508-27 January 1556) better known by his regnal name, Humayun, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1531-1540 and again from 1555-1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.

In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. At the age of 23, Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Lahore, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun.


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The Battle of Chausa was fought between  


Babur and Rana Sanga
Akbar and Maharana Pratap
Humayun and Sher Shah Suri
None

Answer:

The Battle of Chausa was a notable military engagement between the Mughal emperor, Humayun, and the Afghan, Sher Shah Suri. It was fought on 26 June 1539 at Chausa, 10 miles southwest of Buxar in modern-day Bihar, India. Sher Shah was victorious and crowned himself Farid al-Din Sher Shah.


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Who was the mother of Akbar?  


Chand Bibi
Shad Bibi
Hamida Banu Begum
Bibi Gunwar

Answer:

Hamida Banu Begum (c. 1527-29 August 1604‎) was a wife of the second Mughal emperor Humayun and the mother of his successor, the third Mughal emperor Akbar. She is also known by the title Maryam Makani, which was given to her by her son, Akbar.

Hamida Banu Begum was born c. 1527 to Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a Persian Shia, who was a preceptor to Mughal prince Hindal Mirza, the youngest son of the first Mughal emperor Babur. Ali Akbar Jami was also known as Mian Baba Dost, who belonged to the lineage of Ahmad Jami Zinda-fil. Hamida Banu's mother was Maha Afroz Begum, who married Ali Akbar Jami in Paat, Sindh. As suggested by her lineage, Hamida was a devout Muslim.


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who constructed the grand trunk road?  



Grand Trunk
Sher Shah Suri
Akbar
Shah Jahan

Answer:

Sher Shah Suri (1486-22 May 1545) was the founder of the Sur Empire in North India, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1540. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Sur dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.

During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya and re-organized the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-Panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He constructed the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.


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Battle of Kannauj fought between  


Akbar and Himu
Akbar and Maharana Pratap
Humayun and Sher Shah Suri
Aurangzeb and Shivaji

Answer:

After the Battle of Chausa,

Humayun and his other brothers Askari and Hindal, marched to meet Sher Shah just 240 kilometers (150 mi) east of Agra at the battle of Kannauj on 17 May 1540. Humayun once again made some tactical errors, and his army was soundly defeated. He and his brothers quickly retreated back to Agra, but they chose not to stay and retreated to Lahore, since Sher Shah followed them. The founding of the short-lived Sur Dynasty (which contained only him and his son) of northern India, with its capital at Delhi, resulted in Humayun's exile for 15 years in the court of Shah Tahmasp I.


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Tomb of Sher Shah Suri located in  



Sasaram
Kabul
Agra
Bihar

Answer:

Sher Shah was killed on 22 May 1545 during the siege of the Kalinjar fort of Rajputs. When all tactics to subdue this fort failed, Sher Shah ordered the walls of the fort to be blown up with gunpowder, but he himself was seriously wounded as a result of the explosion of a mine. He was succeeded by his son, Jalal Khan, who took the title of Islam Shah Suri. His mausoleum, the Sher Shah Suri Tomb (122 ft high), stands in the middle of an artificial lake at Sasaram, a town on the Grand Trunk Road.


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After which war Mughal Empire was re-established in India?  


Battle of Machhiwara
Battle of Sirhind
A and B
None

Answer:

After the death of Islam Shah Suri, the Suri Empire was in a civil war where various contenders to the throne fought each other for supremacy. Sikandar Shah Suri was occupied with his struggle against Ibrahim Shah Suri when Humayun mobilized an army from Kabul. He captured Rohtas Fort and Lahore in February 1555. Another detachment of his forces captured Dipalpur and Jalandhar. Their advanced division proceeded towards Sirhind. Sikandar sent a force of 30,000 to intercept them but they were defeated by the Mughal army in Battle of Machhiwara and Sirhind was occupied by the Mughals.

Sikandar led an army of 80,000 and met the Mughals at Sirhind. On June 22, 1555, they met in battle. Humayun and Bairam Khan carried out a daring raid in a rainstorm like Sher Shah Suri had done at the Battle of Chausa to defeat Humayun. Sikandar was defeated by the Mughal army and was compelled to retreat to the Sivalik Hills in northern Punjab. The victorious Mughals marched to Delhi and occupied it and reestablished their empire in India.


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In which year Humayun died?  


1555
1556
1557
None

Answer:

On 27 January 1556, Humayun, with his arms full of books, was descending the staircase from his library when the muezzin announced the Azaan (the call to prayer). It was his habit, wherever he heard the summons, to bow his knee in holy reverence. Trying to kneel, he caught his foot in his robe, tumbled down several steps and hit his temple on a rugged stone edge. He died three days later. His body was laid to rest in Purana Quila initially, but because of an attack by Hemu on Delhi and the capture of Purana Qila, Humayun's body was exhumed by the fleeing army and transferred to Kalanaur in Punjab where Akbar was crowned. His tomb, which was commissioned by his favourite and devoted chief wife, Bega Begum, stands in Delhi, where he was later buried in a grand way.


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Who promulgated Din-i Ilahi?  


Akbar
Humayun
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

The Din-i Ilahi (lit. "Religion of God") was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great in 1582 AD, intending to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects. The elements were primarily drawn from Islam and Hinduism, but some others were also taken from Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.

Akbar promoted tolerance of other faiths. In fact, not only did he tolerate them, he encouraged debate on philosophical and religious issues. This led to the creation of the Ibadat Khana ("House of Worship") at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575. He had already repealed the jizya (tax on non-Muslims) in 1568. A religious experience while hunting in 1578 further increased his interest in the religious traditions of his empire

From the discussions held at the Ibadat Khana, Akbar concluded that no single religion could claim the monopoly of truth. This inspired him to create the Din-i Ilahi in 1582. Various pious Muslims, among them the Qadi of Bengal and the seminal Sufi personality Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, responded by declaring this to be blasphemy to Islam. According to a renowned historian Mubarak Ali, Din-i Ilahi is a name not present in Akbar's period. At that time it was called Tawhid-i-Ilahi ("divine monotheism"), as it is written by Abu Al Fazal, a court historian during the reign of Akbar. So it can be said that it was not a religion in proper sense or in comparison with the mainstream religions. As there was no compulsion in its acceptance, no reward, no punishment and no establishment of religious institutions. Furthermore, it can be said that it was a political system to bring unity in plurality rather than a religion.


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Buland Darwaza was built by  



Humayun
Akbar
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Buland Darwaza or the "Gate of Magnificence", was built in 1601 A.D. by Akbar to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. It is the main entrance to the palace at Fatehpur Sikri, a town which is 43 km from Agra, India.

Buland Darwaza is the highest gateway in the world and is an example of Mughal architecture. It displays Akbar's empire.


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Battle of Haldighati was fought between  



Akbar and Himu
Akbar and Maharana Pratap
Humayun and Sher Shah Suri
Aurangzeb and Shivaji

Answer:

The Battle of Haldighati was a battle fought on 18 June 1576 between cavalry and archers supporting the Rana of Mewar, Maharana Pratap; and the Mughal emperor Akbar's forces, led by Man Singh I of Amber. The Mughals were the victors and inflicted significant casualties among the Mewaris but failed to capture Pratap, who escaped.

The grim siege of Chittorgarh in 1568 had led to the loss of the fertile eastern belt of Mewar to the Mughals. However, the rest of the wooded and hilly kingdom was still under the control of the Rana. Akbar was intent on securing a stable route to Gujarat through Mewar; when Pratap Singh was crowned king (Rana) in 1572, Akbar sent a number of envoys entreating the Rana to become a vassal like many other Rajput leaders in the region. When the Rana refused to personally submit to Akbar, war became inevitable.

The site of the battle was a narrow mountain pass at Haldighati near Gogunda in Rajasthan. Maharana Pratap fielded a force of around 3,000 cavalry and 400 Bhil archers. The Mughals were led by Raja Man Singh of Amber, who commanded an army numbering around 5,000-10,000 men. After a fierce battle lasting more than three hours, Pratap found himself wounded and the day lost. While a few of his men bought him time, he managed to make an escape to the hills and lived to fight another day. The casualties for Mewar numbered around 1,600 men. The Mughal army lost 150 men, with another 350 wounded.


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In the age of ____ years, Akbar enthroned by Bairam Khan.  


11
13
12
23

Answer:

Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim the Mughal throne. In Kalanaur, Punjab, the 13-year-old Akbar was enthroned by Bairam Khan on a newly constructed platform, which still stands. He was proclaimed Shahanshah (Persian for "King of Kings"). Bairam Khan ruled on his behalf until he came of age.


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Akbarnama was written by  


Gulbadan Begum
Abul Fazl
Akbar
None

Answer:

The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r.-1556-1605), commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul Fazl who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court. It was written in Persian, the literary language of the Mughals, and includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and times.

The first volume of Akbarnama deals with the birth of Akbar, the history of Timur's family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri sultans of Delhi.

The second volume describes the detailed history of the reign of Akbar till 1602, and records the events during Akbar's reign. It also deals with that how Bairam Khan and Akbar won the battle of Panipat against Hemu an Indian warrior.

The third volume is named A'In-i-AkbarI, and details the administrative system of the Empire as well as containing the famous "Account of the Hindu Sciences". It also deals with Akbar's household, army, the revenues and the geography of the empire. It also produces rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. It is famous for its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crop yields, prices, wages and revenues. Here Abu'l Fazl's ambition, in his own words, is: "It has long been the ambitious desire of my heart to pass in review to some extent, the general conditions of this vast country, and to record the opinions professed by the majority of the learned among the Hindus. I know not whether the love of my native land has been the attracting influence or exactness of historical research and genuine truthfulness of narrative.


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Persian translation of the Mahabharata is called  



Book of War
A tale of war
Razmnama
None

Answer:

The Razmnāma (Book of War) is a Persian translation of the Mahabharata. In Persian, "Razm" means "war" and "nama" means "tale" or "epic"; the name Razmnamah, therefore, means a tale of war. In 1574 Akbar started a Maktab Khana or a house of translation works in Fatehpur Sikri. He endorsed the work to a few officials to make translations of the Sanskrit books Rajatarangini, Ramayana and Mahabharata into the Persian language

First copy: In 1582 an order was passed to translate the Mahabharata into Persian. The translation work of the Mahabharata, which has one lakh (100,000) Slokas, was carried out during the period 1584-1586. Today a copy of this translation work can be found in the "City Palace Museum" of Jaipur. Mushfiq has contributed the paintings to this book. The speciality of this Razmnamah is the paintings of the events of Mahabharata in the book.

The second copy of the Razmnama was completed between 1598 and 1599. When compared with the first copy, the second copy is found to be more elaborate. the 161 paintings found in this copy provide illustatrations of the Mahabharata. The paintings were the token of the excellence of the artists of Akbar's time. It clearly shows the patronage of artists during Akbar's reign. The copies were sent to members of royal families as gifts to help them understand the Hindu religion better. According to Akbar's courtier Abd al-Qadir Badayuni, Akbar ordered the copies to be sent to all the Amirs of his kingdom, with instructions to receive them as a gift from God. According to the preface written by Abul Fazl the historian in Akbar's court, the intention behind these gifts and their distribution was very pious.


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In which year Akbar died?  



1610
1705
1600
1605

Answer:

On 3 October 1605, Akbar fell ill with an attack of dysentery, from which he never recovered. He is believed to have died on or about 27 October 1605, after which his body was buried at a mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra.

Seventy-six years later, in 1681, a group of austere Hindu rebels known as the Jats, rebelling against the Mughal Empire, robbed the gold, silver and fine carpets within the tomb, desecrating Akbar's mausoleum.

Raja Ram Jat, in order to avenge his father Gokula's death, plundered and looted Akbar's tomb and dragged out Akbar's bones and burned them. He was later sentenced to death by Aurangzeb.


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Who was the fourth Mughal Emperor?  


Jahangir
Akbar
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir (Persian for "conqueror of the world" (31 August 1569 - 28 October 1627)), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. Much romance has gathered around his name (Jahangir means 'conqueror of the world', 'world-conqueror' or 'world-seizer'; Jahan = world, gir the root of the Persian verb gereftan, gireftan = to seize, to grab), and the tale of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, Anarkali, has been widely adapted into the literature, art and cinema of India.

Jahangir was the eldest surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Impatient for power, he revolted in 1599 while Akbar was engaged in the Deccan. Jahangir was defeated but ultimately succeeded his father as Emperor in 1605 because of the immense support and efforts of his step-mothers, Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Salima Sultan Begum and his grandmother, Hamida Banu Begum. These women wielded considerable influence over Akbar and favoured Jahangir as his successor. The first year of Jahangir's reign saw a rebellion organized by his eldest son Khusrau. The rebellion was soon put down; Khusrau was brought before his father in chains. After subduing and executing nearly 2000 members of the rebellion, Jahangir blinded his renegade son.

Jahangir built on his father's foundations of administration and his reign was characterized by political stability, a strong economy, and cultural achievements. The imperial frontiers continued to move forward-in Bengal, Mewar, Ahmadnagar and the Deccan. Later during his rule, Jahangir was battling his rebellious son Khurram in Hindustan. The rebellion of Khurram absorbed Jahangir's attention, so in the spring of 1623 he negotiated a diplomatic end to the conflict. Much of India was politically pacified; Jahangir's dealings with the Hindu rulers of Rajputana were particularly successful, and he settled the conflicts inherited from his father. The Hindu rulers all accepted Mughal supremacy and in return were given high ranks in the Mughal aristocracy.


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Who was the famous painter in the time of Jahangir?  



Abul Hasan
Ustad Mansur
Maqbul Fida Hossain
None

Answer:

Jahangir was fascinated with art, science, and architecture. From a young age, he showed a leaning towards painting and had an atelier of his own. His interest in portraiture led to much development in this art form. The art of Mughal painting reached great heights under Jahangir's reign. His interest in painting also served his scientific interests in nature. The painter Ustad Mansur became one of the best artists to document the animals and plants which Jahangir either encountered on his military exhibitions or received as donations from emissaries of other countries. Jahangir maintained a huge aviary and a large zoo, kept a record of every specimen and organized experiments. Jahangir patronized the European and Persian arts. He promoted Persian culture throughout his empire. This was especially so during the period when he came under the influence of his Persian Empress, Nur Jahan and her relatives, who from 1611 had dominated Mughal politics. Amongst the most highly regarded Mughal architecture dating from Jahangir's reign is the famous Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir. The world's first seamless celestial globe was built by Mughal scientists under the patronage of Jahangir.

Ustad Mansur (flourished 1590-1624) was a seventeenth-century Mughal painter and court artist. He grew in acclaim during the reign of Jahangir (r. 1605-1627) during which period he excelled at depicting plants and animals. He was the earliest artist to depict the dodo in color, apart from being the first to illustrate the Siberian crane. Towards the end of Akbar's reign, he gained the title of Ustad (master) and during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir his masterpieces earned him the title of Nadir-al-'Asr ("Unequalled of the age"). Although largely known for his natural history illustrations, he also portrayed people in various manuscript illustrations.


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The first wife of Jahangir is  


Jagat Gosaini
Manbhawati Bai
Sahib-i-Jamal Begum
Malika Jahan Begum

Answer:

Man Bai (died 16 May 1605) was the first wife of Shahzada Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim, future Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of Prince Khusrau Mirza. She received the title of Shah Begum after giving birth to her son.

Man Bai was the daughter of Raja Bhagwant Das of Amber and married her first-cousin, Salim, when he was 15 years-old in 1585. She was a bad choice as a wife for Salim as both she and her father were mentally unstable. While Bhagwant Das had once attempted suicide, Man Bai died by her own hand.

She was a neurotic woman, quick to take offence over imagined insults, for which there was plenty of scope for the Rajput princess in Jahangir's polygamous and predominantly Muslim household. "The lady [Man Bai] was ever ambitious of an ascendancy over the other inmates of the harem, and grew violent at the slightest opposition of her will" said Inayatullah. "From time to time her mind wandered, and her father and brothers all agreed in telling me she was insane," writes Jahangir.

Man Bai committed suicide on 16 May 1605 by an overdose of drugs (opium) due to her unhappiness over her son's surliness towards her husband. But Muhibb Ali gives a different reason for her suicide: "As Prince Salim always behaved improperly to her, her mind became jealous and she killed herself by taking opium." Her tomb is in Khusrau Bagh in Allahabad.


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Who was the mother of Shah Jahan?  


Malika Jahan Begum
Khas Mahal Begum
Nur-un-Nissa Begum
Jagat Gosaini

Answer:

Jagat Gosaini (d. 1619) was a wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of his successor, the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. She is also known as Jodh Bai, Manmati, and was given the posthumous title of Bilqis Makani.

By birth, she was a Rajput princess of Marwar (present-day Jodhpur) and was a daughter of Raja Udai Singh (popularly known as Mota Raja), the Rathore ruler of Marwar.


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Battle of Bhairowal fought between  


Khurram and Khusrau
Jahangir and Khusrau
Akbar and Jahangir
None

Answer:

In 1605, the emperor Akbar died. Akbar had been deeply disappointed with Khusrau's father Jahangir. Perhaps due to this background, Khusrau rebelled against his father in 1606 to secure the throne for himself.

Khusrau left Agra on April 6, 1606 with 350 horsemen on the pretext of visiting the tomb of Akbar at nearby Sikandra. In Mathura, he was joined by Hussain Beg with about 3000 horsemen. In Panipat, he was joined by Abdur Rahim, the provincial dewan (administrator) of Lahore. When Khusrau reached Taran Taran near Amritsar, he received the blessings of Guru Arjan Dev.

Khusrau laid siege on Lahore, defended by Dilawar Khan. Jahangir soon reached Lahore with a large army and Khusrau was defeated in the battle of Bhairowal. He and his followers tried to flee towards Kabul but they were captured by Jahangir's army while crossing the Chenab.

Khusrau was first brought to Delhi, where a novel punishment was meted out to him. He was seated in grand style on an elephant and paraded down Chandni Chowk, while on both sides of the narrow street, the noblemen and barons who had supported him were held at knife-point on raised platforms. As the elephant approached each such platform, the luckless supporter was impaled on a stake (through his bowels), while Khusrau was compelled to watch the grisly sight and listen to the screams and pleas of those who had supported him. This was repeated numerous times through the entire length of Chandni Chowk.

Khusrau was then blinded (in 1607) and imprisoned in Agra. However, his eyesight was never completely lost. In 1616, he was handed over to Asaf Khan, the brother of his step-mother Nur Jehan. In 1620, he was handed over to his younger brother Prince Khurram (later known as emperor Shah Jahan), who incidentally was Asaf Khan's son-in-law. In 1622, Khusrau was killed on the orders of his Prince Khurram.


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In which year Jahangir died?  



1606
1627
1629
1620

Answer:

Jahangir died on the way back from Kashmir near Sarai Saadabad in 1627. To preserve his body, the entrails were removed and buried in the Baghsar Fort, Kashmir. The body was then transferred to Lahore to be buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram, who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir's elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore and is a popular tourist attraction.


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Birthplace of Shah Jahan is  


Agra
Delhi
Lahore
Kabul

Answer:

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession). His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship.


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Who founded Shahjahanabad?  



Akbar
Jahangir
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Old Delhi is a walled city of Delhi, India, founded as Shahjahanabad in 1639 by the Mughal emperor at the time, Shah Jahan. It remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi.

The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern part overlaps some of the area that was settled by the Tughlaqs in the 14th century when it was the seat of Delhi Sultanate. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), Lodi dynasty (1451-1526) and the Suri dynasty (1540-1556)

Delhi remained an important place for the Mughals, who built palaces and forts. Most importantly, Shah Jahan had the walled city built from 1638 to 1649, containing the Lal Qila and the Chandni Chowk. Delhi was one of the original twelve subahs (imperial Mughal provinces), renamed Shahjahanabad in 1648, bordering Awadh, Agra, Ajmer, Multan and Lahore subahs. Daryaganj had the original cantonment of Delhi, after 1803, where a native regiment of Delhi garrison was stationed, which was later shifted to Ridge area. East of Daryaganj was Raj ghat Gate of the walled city, opening at Raj Ghat on Yamuna River. The first wholesale market of Old Delhi opened as the hardware market in Chawri Bazaar in 1840, the next wholesale market was that of dry fruits, spices, and herbs at Khari Baoli, opening in 1850. The Phool Mandi (Flower Market) of Daryaganj was established in 1869, and even today, despite serving a small geographical area, it is of great importance due to dense population.


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Tomb of Jahangir located at  



Agra
Lahore
Delhi
None

Answer:

Jahangir died on the way back from Kashmir near Sarai Saadabad in 1627. To preserve his body, the entrails were removed and buried in the Baghsar Fort, Kashmir. The body was then transferred to Lahore to be buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram, who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir's elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore and is a popular tourist attraction.


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who got the title 'Malika-i-Jahan' from Shah Jahan?  


Kandahari Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Akbarabadi Mahal
Fatehpuri Mahal

Answer:

Upon his accession to the throne in 1628, Shah Jahan designated Mumtaz as his chief empress with the title of 'Malika-i-Jahan' ("Queen of the World") and 'Malika-uz-Zamani' ("Queen of the Age"). Mumtaz's tenure as empress was brief (spanning a period of only three years due to her untimely death), nonetheless Shah Jahan bestowed her with luxuries that no other empress was given before her. For example, no other empress' residence was as decorated as Khas Mahal (part of Agra Fort), where Mumtaz lived with Shah Jahan. It was decorated with pure gold and precious stones and had rose water fountains of its own. Each wife of the Mughal emperor was given regular monthly allowance for her gastos (housekeeping or travelling expenses). The highest allowance on record is 10 lakh rupees per year given to Mumtaz Mahal under Shah Jahan.


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Aurangzeb meaning in English  


King of the World
Conqueror of the world
The great
Ornament of the Throne

Answer:

Aurangzeb meaning in English is Ornament of the Throne. Aurangzeb is a Persian term.


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Who was the mother of Aurangzeb?  


Kandahari Mahal
Nur Jahan
Mumtaz Mahal
None

Answer:

Mumtaz Mahal was the mother of Aurangzeb.

Mumtaz Mahal (meaning "the Exalted One of the palace"; born Arjumand Banu) (27 April 1593-17 June 1631) was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The UNESCO World Heritage Site, Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World, was commissioned by her husband to act as her final resting place.


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Who was the sixth Emperor of Mughal?  


Jahangir
Akbar
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 1618 - 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (meaning "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707.

Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million (more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France), or £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of world GDP in 1700.

Aurangzeb is considered one of India's most controversial kings. Some historians argue that his policies abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his destruction of Hindu temples and execution of a Sikh guru, while other historians question this, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated and were politically motivated, and noting that he built more temples than he destroyed, also destroyed Islamic mosques, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, and opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.


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Who was named as "Zinda Pir" or "Living Saint"?  


Akbar
Jahangir
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Aurangzeb was named as "Zinda Pir" or "Living Saint".

Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan has officially declared the Mughal Emperor, and Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history.

On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance,[19] and successfully defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur (Brave) and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, and Aurangzeb said: If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did!

As emperor, Aurangzeb banned the drinking of alcohol, gambling,[53] castration, servitude, eunuchs, music, nautch and narcotics in the Mughal Empire.


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Who commissioned the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri?  



Akbar
Jahangir
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

Fatawa-e-Alamgiri (also known as Fatawa-i-Hindiya and Fatawa-i Hindiyya) is a compilation of law created at the insistence of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (who was also known as Alamgir). This compilation is based on Sunni Hanafi Islam's Sharia law, and was the work of many scholars, principally from the Hanafi school.

In order to compile Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, Aurangzeb gathered 500 experts in Islamic jurisprudence (Faqih), 300 from the South Asia, 100 from Iraq and 100 from the Hejaz (Saudi Arabia). Their work over years, resulted in an Islamic code of law for South Asia, in late Mughal Era. It consists of legal code on personal, family, slaves, war, property, inter-religious relations, transaction, taxation, economic and other law for a range of possible situations and their juristic rulings by the Hanafi jurists of the time.

The Fatawa-e-Alamgiri is notable for several reasons:

  It spanned 30 volumes

  It served as the basis of law and doctrine imposed by Aurangzeb throughout his empire by early 18th century

  It created a legal system that treated people differently based on their religion, social class and economic status.


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Which Emperor employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy?  


Akbar
Aurangzeb
Jahangir
Shah Jahan

Answer:

Aurangzeb's imperial bureaucracy employed significantly more Hindus than that of his predecessors. Between 1679 and 1707, the number of Hindu officials in the Mughal administration rose by half, many of them Marathas and Rajputs. His increasing employment of Hindus and Shia Muslims was deemed controversial at the time, with several of his fellow Sunni Muslim officials petitioning against it, which he rejected, and responded, "What connection have earthly affairs with religion? And what right have administrative works to meddle with bigotry? 'For you is your religion and for me is mine.'" He insisted on employment based on ability rather than religion.

Under Aurangzeb's reign, Hindus rose to represent 31.6% of Mughal nobility, the highest in the Mughal era. This was largely due to a substantial influx of Marathas, who played a key role in his successful Deccan campaign. During his time, the number of Hindu Mansabdars increased from 22% to over 31% in the Mughal administration, as he needed them to continue his fight in the Deccan


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Which one of this constructed by Shah Jahan?  



Taj Mahal and Red Fort
Peacock Throne and Moti Masjid
Jama Masjid of Delhi and Wazir Khan Mosque
All

Answer:

Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture. His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, which he built out of love for his wife, the empress Mumtaz Mahal.

Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble underlaid with brick. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other constructions are the Red Fort also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar, the Jahangir mausoleum-his father's tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque. He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule. Shah Jahan also placed profound verses of the Quran on his masterpieces of architecture.

The Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Sindh province of Pakistan (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) was built during the reign of Shah Jahan in 1647. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 93 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end when the speech exceeds 100 decibels. It has been on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993.


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Tomb of Shah Jahan located at  



Agra
Delhi
Fatehpur Sikri
None

Answer:

Tomb of Shah Jahan located at Agra. Which is nothing but Taj Mahal. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan also buried there.


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Picture shows the empire of  



Akbar
Jahangir
Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb

Answer:

This picture shows the Empire of Aurangzeb.

Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million (more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France), or £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of world GDP in 1700.


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